Summary LAD (Deasy, Punggulina, and Ani)

Group 1: Constructing Discrete point test: Grammar

 

Scope

  • Sentence structure
  •  Using and identifying parts of speech
  • Tenses (present, past, future)
  • Agreement
  • Conditional, main clauses, sub clauses
  • Passive active
  • Conjunction (co coordinative: one word( but…and…), (subordinate: consist of noun, clauses, adjective clauses, adv clauses, where, what, when)
  •  Preposition (time and place, direction)
  • Modal
  • Clauses, reported speech, paraphrase

 

Types of text

  • Sentences Combining exercises

Sentence combining exercises can play a part in testing grammar as well as its more traditional use as part of composition testing and training

  • Sentences Order

Test-takers are given four alternative word orders or they are given four words and asked to put the words in order

  • Multiple Choice

The test-maker gives the test-takers a sentence with a blank and four or five choices of a word or phrase which completes the sentence correctly

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • A large number of ideas can be addressed in a short period of response time
  • It is easily and quickly scored
  • Questions can elicit responses from all cognitive levels, from knowledge to evaluation
  • Questions can be improved over time by analyzing them in light of student performance

  • It is time-consuming to write good items, especially those at higher cognitive levels

 

  • Error Analysis

The test-takers are given a sentence with an error. Then the test-takers need to decide which of the words or phrases has the error (marked with letters)

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • It can increase the students’ sensitivity in assessing the sentences that they read
  •  It’s difficult to construct the sentence without making the error looks obvious
  • Completing Items/ fill in the blank

The test-takers are given incomplete sentences or paragraph and asked to fill in the gaps with appropriate items (sometimes the items are provided by the test-makers). Completion items is intended to test reading ability or vocabulary knowledge, in contrast, use content words

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • it is possible to require a phrase instead of a word in each blank
  • While it is probably not realistic for large- scale testing situations, it is something that is useful for classroom teachers who want to help their students develop an ability to produce appropriate grammatical forms in context.  (correction not meaning)
  • A lot of vocabulary can be assessed in a minimal time
  • Construction is relatively easy
  • The disadvantage is that they need to be marked by hand and there will be some cases where the marker needs to make judgments about whether a response is correct.
  • It is not always easy to write items for which there is only one possible answer.
  • Difficult to avoid ambiguity in constructing questions
  • Scoring requires careful reading for unanticipated but correct answers (scoring means measurement)

 

  • Word Changing Items

The test takers are given a sentence and a word which they need to fit into the sentence by changing the form of the word

 

  • Transforming Item

In this type, test- takers are given a sentence and the first few words of another sentence to change the original sentence without changing the meaning.

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • It is good to add grammatical knowledge
  •  this type of test is difficult to grade because the teacher has to be aware of the variety of possible answers

 

How to Construct

Dos

Don’ts

Multiple Choice

  • Use the same number of distracters (wrong answers) for every question
  • Use reasonable vocabulary and avoid ambiguity
  • Examine questions carefully for subtle clues in word choice or phrasing

 

  • Provide clues in the stem, such as “a” or “an” at the end; put these articles with the distracters.

Completion Items/Fill in the Blank

  • Keep items brief.
  • Try to ensure that only one term fits each blank.
  • Give students credit for unanticipated yet correct responses (set up the scoring guide)


  • Lift statements directly from the book.

Error Analysis

  • Mix in some sentences that have no errors, and students are required to indicate that there is no error.
  • The students might be required to correct the error.


  • Provide two errors, or 2 possible errors in a statement

Sentence Order

  • The sentence has complete grammatical components


  •  Making the sentence too long

Transformation Items

  • The word which starts the transformed sentence is underlined, or the test-takers are given one word to use in the new sentence


  • Combine more than 2 sentences because those can lead to confusion

Sentence Combining Exercise

  • Specifying how the two sentences should be combined – for example by using relative pronoun


  • Ask the students to combine more than two sentences

 

 

SUMMARY GROUP 1: Constructing Discrete point test: Grammar

Summary Group 1

Constructing Discrete point test: Grammar

Submitted by: Eni Masitah

Meti Rahmawati

Noka Dara C.

Grammar and Grammar Ability

What is grammar?

In linguistic, grammar is the set of structural rules that governs the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.

Grammatical ability/ competence based on the discrete point approach

Grammatical competence is the ability to recognize and produce the distinctive grammatical structures of a language and to use them effectively (that is accurate) in communication.

Competence means: 1)having knowledge,  2)ability to apply the knowledge,  3)the application to apply the attitude

Demonstration is the application of the knowledge

Areas Constituting Grammar in Language Testing

What to measure?

  • Sentence structure,
  • Using and identifying parts of speech,
  • Tenses (present, past, future)
  • Agreement
  • Conditional, main clauses, sub clauses
  • Passive active
  • Conjunction (co coordinative: one word( but…and…), (subordinate: consist of noun, clauses, adjective clauses, adv clauses, where, what, when)
  • Preposition (2; time and place, direction)
  • Modal
  • Clauses, reported speech, paraphrase

 

Type of Test

  1. 1.      Multiple Choice Tests
  • Multiple choice is probably the most common way of testing grammatical knowledge since it opens for many variations of questions. There are at least 3 models of multiple choice test in testing grammar competence.

Multiple Choice Test Model 1.

  • The test maker gives the testakers a sentence with a blank and four or five choices of a word or phrase which completes the sentence correctly.
  • For example,

Because my mother was sick,

I _____ to go home last week.
a.  had  

 b. have

 c.  has

 d. hadn’t

Multiple Choice Test Model 2

  • The testaker an utterance, and have them decide which of four or five utterances is an appropriate response.
  • Example:

Choose the appropriate epression to respond to the statement.

“I think that tuition is much too high here.”
a) I do so.                   

b) Do I so.      

            c) I so do.                   

d) So do I.

Multiple Choice Test Model 3

  • To give testaker a sentence and ask them to choose which of four or five alternatives has the same meaning.
  • For example:

Choose which statement that has the same meaning of the

“The school should have expelled him.”
a) The school didn’t expel him, which was wrong.
b) The school expelled him, because it was necessary.
c) The school might have expelled him, if it had known.
d) The school will probably expel him in the near future

Multiple Choice Test Model 4

  • An error correction item is one in which the testaker is given a sentence with an error. Four words or phrases in the sentence marked with letters, and the testtakers needs to decide which of the words or phrases has the error.
  • For example,

Choose the alternative that contain an error.

(a) Most of students (b) believe that they (c) should be getting          better grades (d) than they are.

Multiple Choice Test Model 5

The following items is aimed to test knowledge of word/sentence order. The traditional way is to present the testtaker with four alternative word orders.

  • Example:

I wonder how she knows _____.
a) how it costs much.
b) how much it costs.
c) it costs how much.
d) it how much costs.

Another possibility is to give testaker the four words and ask them to put the words in order.

  • For example:

I wonder how she knows ___________________.
how / it /much / costs

 

2. COMPLETION ITEMS

For the purpose of a grammar test, the words which fit in the blanks should be function words, such as articles and prepositions. (Completion items intended to test reading ability or vocabulary knowledge, in contrast, use content words.)

  • Example of Completion Items
  • Give the book to ______ woman in the blue dress.
  • Meriden danced a jig and then _____ a song that took my heart away.
  • If you want to learn how to play video games, watch TV, or _____  donuts, spend an afternoon with my children.

3. FILL IN THE BLANK

Fill in the gaps in the story with verbs in the Present Simple. Choose verbs from the list (some verbs are extra). to ask, to ask, to earn (negative form).

Slim Skinty and Ellie Trampter are very poor. They____1), so they____2)any money. However, they 3) their lives. Slim Skinty often____4) under a bridge or in the park. He____5) food in rubbish bins and____6) his clothes in the river.

4. TRANSFORMATION ITEMS

Another type of grammar item makes use of transformations. In this type of item, test takers are given a sentence and the first few words of another sentence to change the original sentence without changing the meaning.

Transformation Items Example

  • 1. Jim hasn’t been home in a long time.

It’s been a long time _________________________.

  • 2.  I don’t need to go to the grocery store this week.
    It isn’t __________________________________________.

5. WORD CHANGING ITEMS

Another type of item is one in which the test takers are given a sentence and a word which they need to fit into the sentence by changing the form of the word.

  • Word Changing Items Example

1. I have never _____ to Australia. (be)
2. I will be with you __________. (moment)

6. SENTENCE COMBINING EXERCISES

Sentence combining exercises can play a part in testing grammar as well as its more traditional use as part of composition testing and training.

Sentence Combining Example:

  • I met Sally’s daughter

She has just got back from Afghanistan

  • I met a man
    The man went to the same high school I did. I met a man who went to the same high school I did.

Rea Dickins says that in order for a test to measure communicative grammar it must have five characteristics:

1. The test must provide more context than only a single sentence.

2. The test taker should understand what the communicative purpose of the task is.

3. He or she should also know who the intended audience is.

4. He or she must have to focus on meaning and not only form to answer correctly.

5. Recognition is not sufficient. The test          taker must be able “to produce grammatical responses.”(pg. 125)

  • Speaking: setting, participant, act of sequences, k, instrumentality, norm,
  • Communicative grammar is focus on the meaning negotiation
  • Task taker must produce something not just recognizing the context.
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Error Correction

Advantages

  • It can increase the students’ sensitivity in assessing the sentences that they read

Disadvantages

  • It’s difficult to construct the sentence without making the error looks obvious errors
  • global error that can cause misunderstanding

HOW TO CONSTRUCT MULTIPLE CHOICE ITEMS

Do’s

  • Use the same number of distracters (wrong answers) for every question.(key a, jumlahnya harus sama dg key B, and so on)
  • Use reasonable vocabulary and avoid wordiness and ambiguity
  • Examine questions carefully for subtle clues in word choice or phrasing

Don’ts

  • Provide clues in the stem, such as “a” or “an” at the end; put these articles with the distracters.

How to Construct :
Fill in the Blanks/ Completion Items

Do’s

  • Keep items brief.
  • Try to ensure that only one term fits each blank.
  • Give students credit for unanticipated yet correct responses (set up the scoring guide)

Don’ts

  • Lift statements directly from the book.

How to Construct:
Error Analysis

Do’s

  • mix in some sentences that have no errors, and students are required to indicate that there is no error.
  • the students might be required to correct the error.

Don’ts

  • Provide two errors, or 2 possible errors in a statement

How to Construct

Sentence Order

Do’s

  • The sentence has complete grammatical components

Don’ts

  • Making the sentence too long

How to Construct

Transformation Items

Do’s

  • The word which starts the transformed sentence is underlined, or the testee is given one word to use in the new sentence

Don’t’s

  • Combine more than 2 sentences          lead to confusion

How to Construct

Sentence Combining Exercise

Do’s

  • Specifying how the two sentences should be combined – for example by using relative pronoun

Don’t’s

  • Ask the students to combine more than two sentences

Summary group 1 Constructing Discrete point test: Grammar

 

 

 

Submitted by:

Fransisca Angelina (120221414914)

 Ria Lusiyani   (100221400416)

 Shinta Amalia 100221404360

 

Summary group 1

Constructing Discrete point test: Grammar

 1.   Areas Constituting Grammar in Language Testing:

  • Sentence structure
  •  Using and identifying parts of speech
  • Punctuation
  •  Spelling
  •  Capitalization
  • Tenses
  • Agreement
  • Clauses
  • Active-passive
  • Preposition
  • Modals
  • Conjunction : coordinative & sub-ordinative
  • Phrases

2.  Type of Test

  • Transfering items

In this type of item, test takers are given a sentence and the first few words of another sentence to change the original sentence without changing the meaning.

Advantages of transfering items:

  • Ø To add grammatical knowledge

Disadvantages of transfering knowledge:

  • Ø This type of test is difficult to grade because the teacher has to be aware of the variety of possible answers. it does not in any way test the testees’ knowledge of when each of the possible transformations would be most appropriate

How to Construct Transformation Items

The things that should do:

  • Ø The word which starts the transformed sentence is underlined, or the testee is given one word to use in the new sentence

The things that should not do:

  • Ø Combine more than 2 sentences because itcan lead to confusion.

Sentences combining exercises

Sentence combining exercises can play a part in testing grammar as well as its more traditional use as part of composition testing and training.

How to Construct Sentence Combining Exercise

The things should do:

  • Ø Specifying how the two sentences should be combined – for example by using relative pronoun

The things that should not do:

  • Ø Ask the students to combine more than two sentences

Error analysis

An error correction item is one in which the test takers is given a sentence with an error. Four words or phrases in the sentence marked with letters and the test takers needs to decide which of the words or phrases has the error.

Advantages of error analysis:

  • Ø It can increase the students’ sensitivity in assessing the sentences that they read.

Disadvantages of error analysis:

  • Ø It’s difficult to construct the sentence without making the error looks obvious.

How to Construct Error Analysis:

The things that should do:

  • Ø Mix in some sentences that have no errors, and students are required to indicate that there is no error.
  • Ø The students might be required to correct the error.

The things that should not do:

  • Ø Provide two errors, or 2 possible errors in a statement

Word changing items

Another type of item is one in which the test takers are given a sentence and a word which they need to fit into the sentence by changing the form of the word.

Completing items / fill in the blank

Completion items intended to test reading ability or vocabulary knowledge, in contrast, use content words.)

Advantages of completing items:

  • Ø The advantage of completion items is that they test production, not just recognition.
  • Ø it is possible to require a phrase instead of a word in each blank. While it is probably not realistic for large- scale testing situations, it is something that is useful for classroom teachers who want to help their students develop an ability to produce appropriate grammatical forms in context.
  • Ø A lot of vocabulary can be assessed in a minimal time
  • Ø Construction is relatively easy

Disadvantages of completing items:

  • Ø The disadvantage is that they need to be marked by hand and there will be some cases where the marker needs to make judgments about whether a response is correct.
  • Ø It is not always easy to write items for which there is only one possible answer.
  • Ø The understanding assessed is likely to be trivial (recall/knowledge level)
  • Ø Difficult to avoid ambiguity in constructing questions
  • Ø Scoring requires careful reading for unanticipated but correct answers

How to Construct Fill in the Blanks/ Completion Items

The things that should do:

  • Ø Keep items brief.
  • Ø Try to ensure that only one term fits each blank.
  • Ø Give students credit for unanticipated yet correct responses

The things that should not do:

  • Ø Lift statements directly from the book.

Multiple choice

It is probably the most common way of testing grammatical knowledge. It also opens for many variations of questions.

Variations of Multiple Choice Test

  1. The test maker gives the test takers a sentence with a blank and four or five choices of a word or phrase which completes the sentence correctly.
  2. To give the test takers an utterance, and have them decide which of four or five utterances is an appropriate response.
  3. To give test takers a sentence and ask them to choose which of four or five alternatives has the same meaning.

Advantages of multiple choice:

  • Ø A large number of ideas can be addressed in a short period of response time.
  • Ø These questions are easily and quickly scored.
  • Ø Questions can elicit responses from all cognitive levels, from knowledge to evaluation.
  • Ø Questions can be improved over time by analyzing them in light of student performance.

Disadvantages of multiple choice:

  • Ø It is time-consuming to write good items, especially those at higher cognitive levels.

How to Construct Multiple Choice Items

The things that should do:

  • Ø Use the same number of distractors (wrong answers) for every question.
  • Ø Use reasonable vocabulary and avoid wordiness and ambiguity
  • Ø Examine questions carefully for subtle clues in word choice or phrasing

The things that should not do:

  • Ø Provide clues in the stem, such as “a” or “an” at the end; put these articles with the distractors.

Sentence order

The traditional way is to present the test takers with four alternative word orders. Another possibility is to give test takers the four words and ask them to put the words in order.

How to Construct Sentence Order:

The things that should do:

  • Ø The sentence has complete grammatical components

The things that should not do:

  • Ø Making the sentence too long

  The Basics of Constructing Grammar Tests:

Rea Dickins says that in order for a test to measure communicative grammar it must have five characteristics.

1. The test must provide more context than only a single sentence.

2. The test taker should understand what the communicative purpose of the task is.

3. He or she should also know who the intended audience is.

4. He or she must have to focus on meaning and not only form to answer correctly.

5. Recognition is not sufficient. The test taker must be able “to produce grammatical responses.”(pg. 125)

Constructing discrete point test :Grammar

Grammar is the set of structural rules that governs the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.
Areas Constituting Grammar in Language Testing:
Sentence structure, using and identifying parts of speech, punctuation, spelling, and capitalization.
Types of test:
•    Transforming items : Another type of grammar item makes use of transformations. In this type of item, test takers are given a sentence and the first few words of another sentence to change the original sentence without changing the meaning.
Example :
1. Jim hasn’t been home in a long time.
It’s been a long time _________________________.
sentences combining exercises :
Sentence combining exercises can play a part in testing grammar as well as its more traditional use as part of composition testing and training.  Exaample :
I met Sally’s daughter
She has just got back from Afghanistan
…………………….

•    errors analysis : An error correction item is one in which the testee is given a sentence with an error. Four words or phrases in the sentence marked with letters and the testee needs to decide which of the words or phrases has the error.

For example,
(a) Most of students (b) believe that they (c) should be getting better grades (d) than they are.

•    words changing items : Another type of item is one in which the test takers are given a sentence and a word which they need to fit into the sentence by changing the form of the word.
Example : I have…  In Paris for the past two years (be)
•    fill in the blank : example : Fill in the gaps in the story with verbs in the Present Simple. Choose verbs from the list (some verbs are extra). To ask, to ask, to earn (negative form).
Slim Skinty and Ellie Trampter are very poor. They____1), so they____2) any money. However, they …..3) their lives. Slim Skinty often____4) under a bridge or in the park. He____5) food in rubbish bins and____6) his clothes in the river.

•    multiple choice :
The test maker gives the testee a sentence with a blank and four or five choices of a word or phrase which completes the sentence correctly.
For example,
Because my mother was sick,
I _____ to go home last week.
A. Had
B.  Have
C. Has
D. Hadn’t

To give the testees an utterance, and have them decide which of four or five utterances an appropriate response is.

Example:
“I think that tuition is much too high here.”
a) I do so
b) Do I so
c) I so do
d) So do I
To give testees a sentence and ask them to choose which of four or five alternatives has the same meaning.
For example:
“The school should have expelled him.”
a) The school didn’t expel him, which was wrong.
b) The school expelled him, because it was necessary.
c) The school might have expelled him, if it had known.
d) The school will probably expel him in the near future

The Basics of Constructing Grammar Tests
Rea Dickins says that in order for a test to measure communicative grammar it must have five characteristics.
1. The test must provide more context than only a single sentence.
2. The test taker should understand what the communicative purpose of the task is.
3. He or she should also know who the intended audience is.
4. He or she must have to focus on meaning and not only form to answer correctly.
5. Recognition is not sufficient. The test taker must be able “to produce grammatical responses.”(pg. 125)
Advantages and disadvantages Multiple choice questions
•    Advantages :
–    A large number of ideas can be addressed in a short period of response time.
–    These questions are easily and quickly scored.
–    Questions can elicit responses from all cognitive levels, from knowledge to evaluation.
–    Questions can be improved over time by analyzing them in light of student performance.
•    Disadvantages :
–    It is time-consuming to write good items, especially those at higher cognitive levels.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Error Correction
•    Advantages :
–    It can increase the students’ sensitivity in assessing the sentences that they read
•    Disadvantages :
–    It’s difficult to construct the sentence without making the error looks obvious
Advantages and disadvantages Completion items or fill in the blank
•    Advantages :
–    Test production, not just recognition.
–    It is possible to require a phrase instead of a word in each blank
–     While it is probably not realistic for large- scale testing situations, it is something that is useful for classroom teachers who want to help their students develop an ability to produce appropriate grammatical forms in context.
–    A lot of vocabulary can be assessed in a minimal time
–    Construction is relatively easy
•    Disadvantages :
–    Need  to be marked by hand and there will be some cases where the marker needs to make judgments about whether a response is correct.
–    It is not always easy to write items for which there is only one possible answer.
–    The understanding assessed is likely to be trivial (recall/knowledge level)
–    Difficult to avoid ambiguity in constructing questions
–    Scoring requires careful reading for unanticipated but correct answers
Advantages and disadvantages transform items
•    Advantages :
–    To add grammatical knowledge
•    Disadvantages :
–    this type of test is difficult to grade because the teacher has to be aware of the variety of possible answers
–    it does not in any way test the testees’ knowledge of when each of the possible transformations would be most appropriate
How to Construct Multiple Choice Items
•    Do’s:
–    Use the same number of distractors (wrong answers) for every question.
–    Use reasonable vocabulary and avoid wordiness and ambiguity
–    Examine questions carefully for subtle clues in word choice or phrasing
•    Don’ts :
–    Provide clues in the stem, such as “a” or “an” at the end; put these articles with the distractors.
How to Construct Fill in the Blanks/ Completion Items
•    Do’s :
–    Keep items brief.
–    Try to ensure that only one term fits each blank.
–    Give students credit for unanticipated yet correct responses
•    Don’ts :
–    Lift statements directly from the book.
How to Construct Error Analysis test
•    Do’s:
–    Mix in some sentences that have no errors, and students are required to indicate that there is no error.
–    The students might be required to correct the error.
•    Don’ts:
–    Provide two errors, or 2 possible errors in a statement
How to Construct Sentence Order test
•    Do’s:
–    The sentence has complete grammatical components
•    Don’ts :
–    Making the sentence too long

How to Construct Transformation Items
•    Do’s:
–    The word which starts the transformed sentence is underlined, or the testee is given one word to use in the new sentence
•    Don’ts:
–    Combine more than 2 sentences lead to confusion
How to Construct Sentence Combining Exercise test
•    Do’s:
–    Specifying how the two sentences should be combined for example by using relative pronoun
•    Don’ts:
–    Ask the students to combine more than two sentences

Constructing Discrete Point Test: Grammar

Grammar and Grammar Ability
•    In linguistic, grammar is the set of structural rules that governs the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.
Grammatical ability/competence based on the discrete point approach
•    Grammatical competence is the ability to recognize and produce the distinctive grammatical structures of a language and to use them effectively in communication.
•    Competence:
1) Knowledge,
2) Ability to apply the knowledge,
3) The application with attitude
Areas Constituting Grammar in Language Testing
•    Sentence structure,
•     Using and identifying parts of speech,
•    Punctuation
•     Spelling
•     Capitalization.
Type of Test:
1.    Multiple Choice Tests
•    Probably the most common way of testing grammatical knowledge
•    It opens for many variations of questions
Variations of Multiple Choice Tests
•    To give the testees an utterance, and have them decide which of four or five utterances an appropriate response is.
•    To give testees a sentence and ask them to choose which of four or five alternatives has the same meaning.
2.    Error Analysis
•    An error correction item is one in which the testee is given a sentence with an error. Four words or phrases in the sentence marked with letters, and the testee needs to decide which of the words or phrases has the error.
3.    Completion items
•    For the purpose of a grammar test, the words which fit in the blanks should be function words, such as articles and prepositions. (Completion items intended to test reading ability or vocabulary knowledge, in contrast, use content words.)
4.    Transformation Items
•    Another type of grammar item makes use of transformations. In this type of item, test takers are given a sentence and the first few words of another sentence to change the original sentence without changing the meaning.
5.    Word Changing Items
•    Another type of item is one in which the test takers are given a sentence and a word which they need to fit into the sentence by changing the form of the word.
6.    Sentence Combining Exercises
•    Sentence combining exercises can play a part in testing grammar as well as its more traditional use as part of composition testing and training.
The Basics of Constructing Grammar Tests
Rea Dickins says that in order for a test to measure communicative grammar it must have five characteristics.
1)    The test must provide more context than only a single sentence.
2)    The test taker should understand what the communicative purpose of the task is.
3)    He or she should also know who the intended audience is.
4)    He or she must have to focus on meaning and not only form to answer correctly.
5)    Recognition is not sufficient. The test taker must be able “to produce grammatical responses.”(pg. 125)

CONSTRUCTING DISCRETE POINT TEST: GRAMMAR

CONSTRUCTING DISCRETE POINT TEST: GRAMMAR

By:

Ratna Komala, Nuke Sari, Puspa Tanjung

In linguistic, grammar is the set of structural rules that governs the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language, also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics. Grammatical competence is the ability to recognize and produce the distinctive grammatical structures of a language and to use them effectively that is accurate) in communication.
Type of test:

1. Multiple Choice Tests
The variations are;

  • To give the test taker a sentence with a blank and four or five choices of a word or phrase which completes the sentence correctly.
  • To give the test taker an utterance, and have them decide which of four or five utterances an appropriate response is.
  • To give test takers a sentence and ask them to choose which of four or five alternatives has the same meaning.

In developing the test, we should use the same number of distracters for every question, use reasonable vocabulary and avoid ambiguity, and make sure there is no subtle clues in word choice or phrasing. We have to avoid providing clues in the stem, such as “a” or “an” at the end.

2. Error Analysis
In this type of test, the test taker is given a sentence with an error. Four words or phrases in the sentence marked with letters, and the test taker needs to decide which of the words or phrases has the error.

In developing error analysis test, we have to mix in some sentences that have no errors, and students are required to indicate that there is no error. We mustn’t rovide two errors, or 2 possible errors in a statement

3. Items to Test Knowledge of Word/Sentence Order
The two ways to conduct the test are:

  • The traditional way is to present the test taker with four alternative word orders in the form of multiple choice.
  • Another possibility is to give test taker the four words and ask them to put the words in order.

4. Completion items
For the purpose of a grammar test, the words which fit in the blanks should be function words, such as articles and prepositions. (Completion items intended to test reading ability or vocabulary knowledge, in contrast, use content words.)

5. Transformation Items
Another type of grammar item makes use of transformations. In this type of item, test takers are given a sentence and the first few words of another sentence to change the original sentence without changing the meaning.

This type of test is difficult to grade because the teacher has to be aware of the variety of possible answers.
In this type of test, the word which starts the transformed sentence should be underlined, or the test taker is given one word to use in the new sentence. We mustn’t combine more than 2 sentence, it will lead to confusion.

6. Word Changing Items
Another type of item is one in which the test takers are given a sentence and a word which they need to fit into the sentence by changing the form of the word.

7. Sentence Combining Exercises
Sentence combining exercises can play a part in testing grammar as well as its more traditional use as part of composition testing and training.
We have to specifying how the two sentences should be combined – for example by usingrelative pronoun. Moreover, we should not ask the students to combine more than two sentences

Rea Dickins says that in order for a test to measure communicative grammar it must have five characteristics.

  1. The test must provide more context than only a single sentence.
  2. The test taker should understand what the communicative purpose of the task is.
  3. He or she should also know who the intended audience is.
  4. He or she must have to focus on meaning and not only form to answer correctly.
  5. Recognition is not sufficient. The test taker must be able “to produce grammatical responses.”(pg. 125)

CONSTRUCTING DISCRETE POINT TEST

CONSTRUCTING DISCRETE POINT TEST: GRAMMAR

By:

Winarsih, Nastiti Fitria O. & Grandis Sesotya A.

  1. A.      What is grammar?

Grammar (noun): the structure and system of a language or of languages in general, usually considered to consist of syntax and morphology. In linguistic, grammar is the set of structural rules that governs the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.

  1. B.       Grammatical ability/ competence based on the discrete point approach

Grammatical competence is the ability to recognize and produce the distinctive grammatical structures of a language and to use them effectively in communication.

  • Competence:

1) Knowledge,

2) Ability to apply the knowledge,

3) The application with attitude

Areas Constituting Grammar in Language Testing

  • Sentence structure
  •  Using and identifying parts of speech
  • Punctuation
  •  Spelling
  •  Capitalization
  • Tenses
  • Agreement
  • Clauses
  • Active-passive
  • Preposition
  • Modals
  • Conjunction : coordinative & sub-ordinative
  • Phrases


TYPE OF THE TEST

  1. 1.    Multiple Choice Tests

It is probably the most common way of testing grammatical knowledge. It opens for many variations of questions.

  1. a.      Variations of Multiple Choice Test
  • The test maker gives the testee a sentence with a blank and four or five choices of a word or phrase which completes the sentence correctly. For example:

Because my mother was sick,

I _____ to go home last week.
a) had    b) have  c) has  d) hadn’t

  • To give the testees an utterance, and have them decide which of four or five utterances an appropriate response is. For example:

“I think that tuition is much too high here.”
a) I do so.                    b) Do I so.      

c) I so do.                     d) So do I.

  • To give testees a sentence and ask them to choose which of four or five alternatives has the same meaning. For example:

“The school should have expelled him.”
a) The school didn’t expel him, which was wrong.
b) The school expelled him, because it was necessary.
c) The school might have expelled him, if it had known.
d) The school will probably expel him in the near future.

  1. b.      Error Analysis
  • An error correction item is one in which the testee is given a sentence with an error. Four words or phrases in the sentence marked with letters and the testee needs to decide which of the words or phrases has the error. For example,

(a)   Most of students (b) believe that they (c) should be getting better grades (d) than they are.

  1. c.       Items to Test Knowledge of Word/Sentence Order
  • The traditional way is to present the testee with four alternative word orders. Example:

I wonder how she knows _____.
a) how it costs much.
b) how much it costs.
c) it costs how much.
d) it how much costs.

  • Another possibility is to give testees the four words and ask them to put the words in order. For example:

I wonder how she knows ___________________.
how / it /much / costs

  1. d.      Completion items

For the purpose of a grammar test, the words which fit in the blanks should be function words, such as articles and prepositions. Completion items intended to test reading ability or vocabulary knowledge, in contrast, use content words.

  • Example of Completion Items
  1. Give the book to ______ woman in the blue dress.
  2. Merdine danced a jig and then _____ a song that took my heart away.
  3. If you want to learn how to play video games, watch TV, or _____ donuts, spend an afternoon with my children.
  4. e.       Transformation Items

Another type of grammar item makes use of transformations. In this type of item, test takers are given a sentence and the first few words of another sentence to change the original sentence without changing the meaning.

  • Transformation Items Example
  1. Jim hasn’t been home in a long time.

It’s been a long time _______________________.

  1. I don’t need to go to the grocery store this week.
    It isn’t __________________________________.
  2. It is difficult to study when it is so noisy.
    Studying ________________________________.
  3. f.       Word Changing Items

Another type of item is one in which the test takers are given a sentence and a word which they need to fit into the sentence by changing the form of the word.

  • Word Changing Items Example
  1. I have __________ in Paris for the past two years (be)
  2. Yellow is ___________ favorite color (she)
  3. I have never ________ to Australia. (be)
  4. I will be with you __________. (moment)
  5. g.      Sentence Combining Exercises

Sentence combining exercises can play a part in testing grammar as well as its more traditional use as part of composition testing and training.

  • Sentence Combining Example
  1. I met Sally’s daughter. She has just got back from Afghanistan. ___________________________________________________.
  2. C.      The Basics of Constructing Grammar Tests

Rea Dickins says that in order for a test to measure communicative grammar it must have five characteristics.

  1. The test must provide more context than only a single sentence.
  2. The test taker should understand what the communicative purpose of the task is.
  3. He or she should also know who the intended audience is.
  4. He or she must have to focus on meaning and not only form to answer correctly.
  5. Recognition is not sufficient. The test taker must be able “to produce grammatical responses”.

Advantages and disadvantages

  1. a.      Multiple choice question

Advantages

ü  A large number of ideas can be addressed in a short period of response time.

ü  These questions are easily and quickly scored.

ü  Questions can elicit responses from all cognitive levels, from knowledge to evaluation.

ü  Questions can be improved over time by analyzing them in light of student performance.

Disadvantages

ü  It is time-consuming to write good items, especially those at higher cognitive levels.

  1. b.      Error Correction

Advantages

ü  It can increase the students’ sensitivity in assessing the sentences that they read

Disadvantages

ü  It’s difficult to construct the sentence without making the error looks obvious

  1. c.       Completion items or fill in the blank

Advantages

ü  The advantage of completion items is that they test production, not just recognition.

ü  It is possible to require a phrase instead of a word in each blank.

ü  While it is probably not realistic for large- scale testing situations, it is something that is useful for classroom teachers who want to help their students develop an ability to produce appropriate grammatical forms in context.

ü  A lot of vocabulary can be assessed in a minimal time.

ü  Construction is relatively easy.

Disadvantages

ü  The disadvantage is that they need to be marked by hand and there will be some cases where the marker needs to make judgments about whether a response is correct.

ü  It is not always easy to write items for which there is only one possible answer.

ü  The understanding assessed is likely to be trivial (recall/knowledge level).

ü  Difficult to avoid ambiguity in constructing questions.

ü  Scoring requires careful reading for unanticipated but correct answers.

  1. d.      Transform  Items

Advantages

ü  To add grammatical knowledge

Disadvantages

ü  His type of test is difficult to grade because the teacher has to be aware of the variety of possible answers.

ü  It does not in any way test the testees’ knowledge of when each of the possible transformations would be most appropriate

 

HOW TO CONSTRUCT TESTS

  1. A.      Multiple Choice Items

Do’s

  1. Use the same number of distracters (wrong answers) for every question.
  2. Use reasonable vocabulary and avoid wordiness and ambiguity.
  3. Examine questions carefully for subtle clues in word choice or phrasing.

Don’ts

  1. Provide clues in the stem, such as “a” or “an” at the end; put these articles with the distracters.
  2. B.       Fill in the Blanks/ Completion Items

Do’s

  1. Keep items brief.
  2. Try to ensure that only one term fits each blank.
  3. Give students credit for unanticipated yet correct responses.

Don’ts

  1. Lift statements directly from the book.
  2. C.      Error Analysis

Do’s

  1. Mix in some sentences that have no errors, and students are required to indicate that there is no error.
  2. The students might be required to correct the error.

Don’ts

  1. Provide two errors, or 2 possible errors in a statement.
  2. D.      Sentence Order

Do’s

  1. The sentence has complete grammatical components.

Don’ts

  1. Making the sentence too long.
  1. E.       Transformation Items

Do’s

  1. The word which starts the transformed sentence is underlined, or the testee is given one word to use in the new sentence.

Don’ts

  1. Combine more than 2 sentences, lead to confusion.
  2. F.       Combining Exercise

Do’s

  1. Specifying how the two sentences should be combined – for example by using relative pronoun

Don’ts

  1. Ask the students to combine more than two sentences.


 

TESTING VOCABULARY

Vocabulary can be defined roughly as the words we teach in the foreign language. However, a new item of vocabulary may be more than just a single word, for example, post-office and mother-in-law, which are made up of two or three words but express a single idea. A useful convention is to cover all such cases by talking about vocabulary “items” rather than “words” Ur (2003).

  1. A.    Area of Vocabulary test

Ur (2003) describes the individual aspects of vocabulary:

  1. Synonym
  2. Antonym
  3. Collocation
  4. Definition
  5. Denotation
  6. Connotation
  7. Meaning depending on the context
    1. B.     Techniques in Vocabulary Testing
      1. Multiple choice(s)
      2. Sets (associated words)
      3. Matching items
      4. Objective items
      5. Completion items
  8. C.    Types of Tests
  9. Multiple Choice


There are two kinds of tests in this type: Nearest in meaning and Completing. In nearest meaning, students have to make a definition of each vocabulary item. While in completing, it has two terms of giving an answer: contextual and collocation. Contextual means that teachers need to give the situation of the text in order to avoid ambiguity. Then, collocation is choosing the world or phrase which is often used with another word or phrase.

Example:

  • Contextual

This dialogue is taken in doctor’s surgery which has a pharmacy

Lee : Can you tell me what time the doctor’s (1)… opens?

King:  It’s open now. The (2) … will help you. (etc.)

(1)   a. ward

b. office

c. surgery

d. hospital

(2)   a. porter

b. hostess

c. waitress

d. receptionist

  • Collocation

The building is . . . Renovation now.

  1. In
  2. Above
  3. Under
  4. Between

How to construct the test

  • Do’s
  1. The options of the stem should be in the same words class/ part of speech.
  2. The options should be in the same level of difficulty.
  3. Grammatically and semantically, the context which is given should be not too brief, nor too broad.
  • Don’ts
  1. Giving incoherent options
  2. Giving too easy or too difficult options. Too easy option will be easily guessed while too difficult option may be tricked the students as well.

Strength

  1. We can use it either for testing single words, words in sentences or in texts.
  2. Easy to assess.

Weaknesses

  1. Quite difficult to design.
  2. The students can select the answer even though they did not have knowledge about it.
  3. Time and energy consuming.
  4. Completion Item/Cloze Test

Cloze test is a exercise, test, or assessment consisting of a portion of text in which words are deleted from it then the students are asked to replace the missing words. This type of test can increase students achievement compared to an open-ended test, easy to assess, objective, practical, understandable and unambiguous. However, it is difficult to construct a good quality cloze test.

Example

Read through the following passage containing a number of incomplete words. Write each complete word on your answer sheet at the side of the appropriate number. (Each dash represents one letter).

Snakes are one of the (1) d-m-n–t groups of (2) r-pt—-: there is at least two thousands different (3) sp-c–s of snakes (4) sc-t—-d over a wide area of the earth.

Strength

  1. Increase students achievement compared to an open-ended test
  2. Easy to score
  3. Objective
  4. Practical
  5. Understandable and unambiguous

Weaknesses

  1. Difficult to construct a good quality test

How to construct the test

  • Do’s
  1. Give a clear hint of each question
  2. Use one part of speech as the questions for each passage
  • Don’ts
  1. Avoid to use unfamiliar as the questions
  2. Dictation

It is a test in which the teacher reads out several words to test students’ ability to hear and write the words correctly. It is easy to construct and time saving, but teacher should be able to pronounce each word correctly to conduct this test.

Example

Teacher dictate words related to office equipments, such as printer, photocopy, computer, etc.

The students write those words on their answer sheet based on what they have heard.

Strength

  1. Easy to make
  2. Time saving

Weaknesses

  1. Teacher should be able to pronounce each word correctly to conduct this test.

How to construct the test

  • Do’s
  1. Pronounce each word clearly and loudly.
  2. Read the words three times (for students to listen, answer, and check).
  • Don’ts
  1. Conduct the test in not a conducive situation (e.g. noisy environment).
  2. Synonym and Antonym

In these exercises, students must give the best synonym or antonym for the word given. It is easy to conduct this test and it is time saving. Teacher may meet difficulties in assessing the test because the answer can be various.

Example

  • Synonym

Fill in the blank with word with the same meaning.

Clever _______ (bright)

Important _______ (significant)

  • Antonym

Fill in the blank with word with the opposite meaning

Beautiful _______ (ugly)

Happy _______ (sad)

  1. Jumbled Letters

The jumbled letters can be given in the pre-reading session. The teachers give the jumble word first to the students without giving the reading material first. This type of test is easy to conduct, time saving, and fun, yet it is difficult to set the standard due to students’ various background knowledge.

Example

Arrange the letters into a word

  1. PLEAP
  2. EGPRA
  3. GREANO
  4. ANELEPPIP
  5. LEMOTENWAR
  6. Odd one Out

Students have to determine which item does not belong among the others. The amount of items can be various. This kind of exercise is easy to prepare, however, the teacher must know which words her students know so that they could find the odd one.

Example

Read each of the following lists of four words. One word does not belong in each list. Put a circle round the odd words in each list.

daughter          happy              pigeon

mother married            geranium

girl                   engaged           sparrow

aunt                 single               swallow

  1. Association/Placing

Students have to underline those words which relate/belong to the key word.

Example

FURNITURE:

“house, table, floor, window, curtain, bed, kitchen, chair”

MOVEMENT:

“think, run, keep, walk, jump, answer”

  1. Matching

Through matching we normally test the meaning of words, usually words of the opposite meaning. Students do not produce any vocabulary, they only match given words. There are also other possibilities than just matching words of opposite meaning. We can design a test where words and pictures are being matched, for example fruit or means of transport etc.

Example

When do people send greeting cards? What messages do they choose? Match the messages below with the occasions. Some messages can be used more than once.

Messages:

Messages Occasion
  1. Congratulation
  2. Best wishes
  3. Happy…
  4. Good luck
  5. Season’s greeting
  6. Bon voyage
  7. Get well soon
  8. With sympathy
  9. Any time
  10. Someone has died
  11. Christmas/Easter
  12. Birthday/Anniversary/New Year
  13. Someone has got a new job
  14. Someone is going to take the exam
  15. Someone has just passed an exam
  16. Someone is getting marred

 

Pronunciation Test
in the Concept of Discrete Point Approach

  1. A.    Pronunciation

Pronunciation refers to the production of sounds that we use to make meaning. It includes attention to the particular sounds of a language (segments), aspects of speech beyond the level of the individual sound, how the voice is projected (voice quality) and, attention to gestures and expressions that are closely related to the way we speak a language.

  1. Scope of Pronunciation Test
    1. 1.      Sound

ü  Sound Discrimination

ü  Sound Comparison

ü  Sound Definition

ü  Same Sound

ü  Odd Man Out

ü  Gap-Filling

ü  Sound Recognition

  1. 2.      Intonation

ü  Intonation Pattern

  1. 3.      Stress

ü  Word Stress

  1. Advantages Pronunciation Test In The Concept of Discrete Point Approach
    1. To accustom the test-takers in distinguishing the words with similar pronunciation.
    2. To avoid misinterpretation in communication.
    3. In the term of scoring, the test is also reliable because of its objectivity, the scoring is efficient.
    4. Disadvantages Pronunciation Test In The Concept of Discrete Point Approach
      1. It is often impossible to manage the large number of students to be tested. Testing equipment, like laboratories or tape recorders, is scarce in many countries where English is taught. Even when such material is available, testing may be impossible by the lack of even more basic facilities such as electricity.
      2. It is not appropriate to all ages.
      3.  The test do not include social context where verbal communication normally take place.
      4.  Success in doing the test is not readily inferable to the ability of the test taker to communicate in real life circumstances.
      5. How to construct the test
        1. 1.      Do’s
  • Use common words that the test-takers find in the daily communication.
  • If it is possible, try to use native speaker cassette to avoid mispronounce words and to accustom the test-takers to listen native speakers.
  • Choose the words with similar pronunciation
  1. 2.      Don’ts
  • Give a large number of items in the same time.
  • Put the distracters that  can easily recognize by the test-takers (Test-wise)

e.g

a. she

b. sea

c. bee (don’t use)

  1. Type of test
    1. Sound Discrimination

The test-takers listen to one word or sentence and circle the one they hear. The option should have similar pronunciation.

Example

  1. a. Sock                                b. Suck
  2. a. But                                  b. Bought
  3. Is that my (pen/pan)?
  4. He was severely (beaten/bitten) by his wife.
    1. Sound Definition

Test-takers listen to a word, and several different definitions including one that is correct for the word are given. Test-takers are asked to select the correct definition for the word they heard. It implies lexis and grammar knowledge.

Example

  • Test-takers will listen:

Bought

  • Test-takers’ answer sheet
  1. A vehicle that moves in the sea.
  2. Past participle of buy.
  3. Coordinating / conjunction
  4. Same Sound

The test-takers will listen to two same words and one different word. The test-taker should choose two same words.

Example

  • Test-takers will listen
  1. a. Bit, b. Bid, c. Bit
  2. a. Port, b. Pot, c. Pot
  • Test-takers should answer

a & c

b & c

  1. Odd man Out

This is an opposite of the same sound technique. The test-takers will listen two same words and one different word. The test-taker should choose one different words.

Example

  • Test-takers will listen
  1. a. Bit, b. Bid, c. Bit
  2. a. Port, b. Pot, c. Pot
  • Test-takers should answer
  1. b
  2. a
  3. Gap-filling

Test-takers listen to a sentence and select from a set of words the one they hear.

Example

  1. Did you see the _______you were looking for?
    1. people b. pupil c. purple
    2. He died at the age of ________.
      1. Forty b. fourteen c. four
      2. Sound Recognition

Test-takers receive a set of card with words. The tester pronounces a certain word and the test taker should show the card which contains word pronounced.

Example

  1. Intonation Pattern

Test-takers listen and identify the speaker’s intention according to his intonation pattern.

Example

Listen to the following tag questions and circle the speaker’s intention according to his/her intonation pattern.

  1. Word Stress

The test-takers are given words then the tester pronounces the words. The test-takers should give the stress by underlining the syllabic.

Example

Record (noun)                                Re cord

Record (Verb)                                Re cord